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Behold Osiris, Qenna the merchant, 2 who saith: Thou risest, thou risest, thou Ra shinest, 3 thou shinest, at dawn of day. Thou art crowned like unto the king of the gods, and the goddess Shuti doeth homage unto thee.
Thou goest forth over the upper air and thy heart is filled with gladness. Ra rejoiceth, Ra rejoiceth. Thy sacred boat advanceth in peace.
Thy foe hath been cast down and his 7 head hath been cut off; the heart of the Lady of life rejoiceth in that the enemy of her lord hath been overthrown.
The mariners of Ra have content of heart and Annu rejoiceth. Grant that I may be like unto one of those who are thy favoured 10 ones [among the followers] of the great god.
May my name be proclaimed, may it be found, may it be lastingly renewed with. Thou 19 wakest up in beauty at the dawn, when the company of the gods and mortals sing songs of joy unto thee; hymns of praise are offered unto thee at eventide.
The 20 starry deities also adore thee. O thou firstborn, who dost lie without movement, 21 arise; thy mother showeth loving kindness unto thee every day.
Ra liveth and the fiend Nak is dead; thou dost endure for ever, and the 22 fiend hath fallen. The goddess Nehebka is in 23 the atet boat; the sacred boat rejoiceth.
Thy heart is glad and thy brow is wreathed with the twin serpents. Behold Osiris, Qenna the merchant, triumphant, who saith: The beings who minister unto Osiris cherish him as King of the North and of the South, the beautiful and beloved man-child.
When 4 he riseth, mortals live. The nations rejoice in him, and the Spirits of Annu sing unto him songs of joy. The Spirits of the towns of Pe and Nekhen 5 exalt him, the apes of dawn adore him, and all beasts and cattle praise 6 him with one accord.
The goddess Seba overthroweth thine enemies, therefore rejoice 7 within thy boat; and thy mariners are content thereat.
Thou hast arrived in the atet boat, and thy heart swelleth with joy. O Lord of the gods, when thou 8 dost create them, they ascribe praises unto thee.
The azure goddess Nut doth compass thee on every side, and the god Nu floodeth thee with his rays of light. When thou goest forth over the earth I will sing praises unto thy fair 11 face.
Thou risest in the horizon of heaven, and [thy] disk is adored [when] it resteth upon the mountain to give life unto the world.
Saith Qenna the merchant, triumphant: Thou dost become young again and art the same as thou wert yesterday, O mighty youth who hast created thyself.
The land of Punt is 14 established for the perfumes which thou smellest with thy nostrils. Thou art the lord of heaven, [thou art] the lord of earth, [thou art] the creator of those who dwell in the heights 6 and of those who dwell in the depths.
Thou didst create the earth, 8 thou didst fashion man, thou didst make the watery abyss of the sky, thou didst form Hapi [the Nile], and thou art the maker of streams and of the 9 great deep, and thou givest life to all that is therein.
Thou hast knit 10 together the mountains, thou has made mankind and the beasts of the field, thou hast created the heavens and the earth.
Worshipped be thou whom the goddess Maat embraceth at morn and at eve. Thou dost travel across the 11 sky with heart swelling with joy; the Lake of Testes is at peace.
The fiend Nak hath fallen and his two arms are cut off. The sektet boat receiveth fair winds, and the heart of him that is in his shrine rejoiceth.
Thou 12 art crowned with a heavenly form, the Only one, provided [with all things]. Ra cometh forth from Nu in triumph. O thou mighty youth, thou everlasting son, self-begotten, who didst give thyself birth, 13 O thou mighty One, of myriad forms and aspects, king of the world, Prince of Annu, lord of eternity and ruler of the everlasting, the company of the gods rejoice when thou risest and when thou sailest 14 across the sky, O thou who art exalted in the sektet boat.
The names and titles of the deceased are written in perpendicular rows of hieroglyphics. The character of the handwriting changes in different periods: The papyri upon which such texts are written vary in length from three to about thirty feet, and in width from nine to eighteen inches; as we approach the period of the XXVIth dynasty the texture becomes coarser and the material is darker in colour.
The Theban papyri of this period are lighter in colour than those found in the north of Egypt and are less brittle; they certainly suffer less in unrolling.
The Books of the Dead written in the hieroglyphic and hieratic characters which belong to the period of the rule of the priest-kings of the brotherhood of Amen form a class by themselves, and have relatively little in common with the older versions.
A remarkable example of this class is the papyrus of Nesi-Khonsu which M. The text is divided into paragraphs, which contain neither prayers nor hymns but a veritable contract between the god Amen-Ra and the princess Nesi-Khonsu.
After the list of the names and titles of Amen-Ra with which it begins follow eleven sections wherein the god declares in legal phraseology that he hath deified the princess in Amenta and in Neter-khert; that he hath deified her soul and her body in order that neither may be destroyed; that he hath made her divine like every god and goddess; and that he hath decreed that whatever is necessary for her in her new existence shall be done for her, even as it is done for every other god and goddess.
The chapters have a fixed and definite order, and it seems that a careful revision of the whole work was carried out, and that several alterations of an important nature were made in it.
A number of chapters which are not found in older papyri appear during this period; but these are not necessarily new inventions, for, as the kings of the XXVIth dynasty are renowned for having revived the arts and sciences and literature of the earliest dynasties, it is quite possible that many or most of the additional chapters are nothing more than new editions of extracts from older works.
Many copies of this version were written by scribes who did not understand what they were copying, and omissions of signs, words, and even whole passages are very common; in papyri of the Ptolemaic period it is impossible to read many passages without the help of texts of earlier periods.
Hieroglyphic texts are written in black, in perpendicular rows between rules, and hieratic texts in horizontal lines; both the hieroglyphics and the hieratic characters lack the boldness of the writing of the Theban period, and exhibit the characteristics of a conventional hand.
The titles of the chapters, catchwords, the words which introduce a variant reading, etc. The vignettes are usually traced in black outline, and form a kind of continuous border above the text.
In some papyri the disk on the head of the hawk of Horus is covered with gold leaf, instead of being painted red as is usual in older papyri.
In this period also certain passages of the text were copied in hieratic and Demotic upon small pieces of papyri which were buried with portions of the bodies of the dead, and upon narrow bandages of coarse linen in which they were swathed.
The chief features of the Egyptian religion remained unchanged from the Vth and VIth dynasties down to the period when the Egyptians embraced Christianity, after the preaching of St.
Mark the Apostle in Alexandria, A. It is not necessary here to repeat the proofs, of this fact which M. The chief gods mentioned in the pyramid texts are identical with those whose names are given on tomb, coffin and papyrus in the latest dynasties; and if the names of the great cosmic gods, such as Ptah and Khnemu, are of rare occurrence, it should be remembered that the gods of the dead must naturally occupy the chief place in this literature which concerns the dead.
Furthermore, we find that the doctrine of eternal life and of the resurrection of a glorified or transformed body, based upon the ancient story of the resurrection of Osiris after a cruel death and horrible mutilation, inflicted by the powers of evil, was the same in all periods, and that the legends of the most ancient times were accepted without material alteration or addition in the texts of the later dynasties.
Le Christianisme chez les anciens Coptes , in Revue des Religions , t, xiv. The story of Osiris is nowhere found in a connected form in Egyptian literature, but everywhere, and in texts of all periods, the life, sufferings, death and resurrection of Osiris are accepted as facts universally admitted.
Greek writers have preserved in their works traditions concerning this god, and to Plutarch in particular we owe an important version of the legend as current in his day.
It is clear that in some points he errs, but this was excusable in dealing with a series of traditions already some four thousand years old.
When Helios discovered the intrigue, he cursed his wife and declared that she should not be delivered of her child in any month or in any year.
Then the god Hermes, who also loved Rhea, played at tables with Selene and won from her the seventieth part of each day of the year, which, added together, made five whole days.
These he joined to the three hundred and sixty days of which the year then consisted. In course of time he became king of Egypt, and devoted himself to civilizing his subjects and to teaching them the craft of the husbandman; he established a code of laws and bade men worship the gods.
Having made Egypt peaceful and flourishing, he set out to instruct the other nations of the world. During his absence his wife Isis so well ruled the state that Typhon [Set], the evil one, could do no harm to the realm of Osiris.
When Osiris came again, Typhon plotted with seventy-two comrades, and with Aso, the queen of Ethiopia, to slay him; and secretly got the measure of the body of Osiris, and made ready a fair chest, which was brought into his banqueting hall when Osiris was present together with other guests.
By a ruse Osiris was induced to lie down in the chest, which was immediately closed by Typhon and his fellow conspirators, who conveyed it to the Tanaitic mouth of the Nile.
For the text see De Iside et Osiride , ed. Didot Scripta Moralia, t. The days are called in hieroglyphics , "the five additional days of the year," e?
Kalendarische Inschriften , Leipzig, , pp. Osiris was born on the first day, Horus on the second, Set on the third, Isis on the fourth, and Nephthys on the fifth; the first, third, and fifth of these days were considered unlucky by the Egyptians.
The first to know of what had happened were the Pans and Satyrs, who dwelt hard by Panopolis; and finally the news was brought to Isis at Coptos, whereupon she cut off a lock of hair and put on mourning apparel.
She then set out in deep grief to find her husband's body, and in the course of her wanderings she discovered that Osiris had been united with her sister Nephthys, and that Anubis, the offspring of the union, had been exposed by his mother as soon as born.
Isis tracked him by the help of dogs, and bred him up to be her guard and attendant. The king of the country, admiring the tree, cut it down and made a pillar for the roof of his house of that part which contained the body of Osiris.
When Isis heard of this she went to Byblos, and, gaining admittance to the palace through the report of the royal maidens, she was made nurse to one of the king's sons, Instead of nursing the child in the ordinary way, Isis gave him her finger to suck, and each night she put him into the fire to consume his mortal parts, changing herself the while into a swallow and bemoaning her fate.
But the queen once happened to see her son in flames, and cried out, and thus deprived him of immortality. Then Isis told the queen her story and begged for the pillar which supported the roof.
This she cut open, and took out the chest and her husband's body, and her lamentations were so terrible that one of the royal children died of fright.
She then brought the. In the Calendar in the fourth Sallier papyrus No. See Chabas, Le Calendrier , p. Here we have Plutarch's statement supported by documentary evidence.
Some very interesting details concerning the festivals of Osiris in the month Choiak are given by Loret in Recueil de Travaux , t.
The various mysteries which took place thereat are minutely described. Robertson Smith, The Religion of the Semites , p. Plutarch adds that the piece of wood is, to this day, preserved in the temple of Isis, and worshipped by the people of Byblos.
Robertson Smith suggests Religion of the Semites , p. That some sort of drapery belonged to the Ashera is clear from 2 Kings xxiii. See also Tylor, Primitive Culture , vol.
Then she sought her son Horus in Buto, in Lower Egypt, first having hidden the chest in a secret place. But Typhon, one night hunting by the light of the moon, found the chest, and, recognizing the body, tore it into fourteen pieces, which he scattered up and down throughout the land.
When Isis heard of this she took a boat made of papyrus--a plant abhorred by crocodiles--and sailing about she gathered the fragments of Osiris's body.
But now Horus had grown up, and being encouraged to the use of arms by Osiris, who returned from the other world, he went out to do battle with Typhon, the murderer of his father.
The fight lasted many days, and Typhon was made captive. But Isis, to whom the care of the prisoner was given, so far from aiding her son Horus, set Typhon at liberty.
Horus in his rage tore from her head the royal diadem; but Thoth gave her a helmet in the shape of a cow's head. In two other battles fought between Horus and Typhon, Horus was the victor.
This is the story of the sufferings and death of Osiris as told by Plutarch. Osiris was the god through whose sufferings and death the Egyptian hoped that his body might rise again in some transformed or glorified shape, and to him who had conquered death and had become the king of the other world the Egyptian appealed in prayer for eternal life through his victory and power.
In every funeral inscription known to us, from the pyramid texts down to the roughly written prayers upon coffins of the Roman period, what is done for Osiris is done also for the deceased, the state and condition of Osiris are the state and condition of.
An account of the battle is also given in the IVth Sallier papyrus, wherein we are told that it took place on the 26th day of the month Thoth.
Horus and Set fought in the form of two men, but they afterwards changed themselves into two bears, and they passed three days and three nights in this form.
Victory inclined now to one side, and now to the other, and the heart of Isis suffered bitterly. When Horus saw that she loosed the fetters which he had laid upon Set, he became like a "raging panther of the south with fury," and she fled before him; but he pursued her, and cut off her head, which Thoth transformed by his words of magical power and set upon her body again in the form of that of a cow.
In the calendars the 26th day of Thoth was marked triply deadly. If Osiris liveth for ever, the deceased will live for ever; if Osiris dieth, then will the deceased perish.
The origin of Plutarch's story of the death of Osiris, and the Egyptian conception of his nature and attributes, may be gathered from the following very remarkable hymn.
Thou makest 5 plants to grow at thy desire, thou givest birth to. Thou art the lord to whom hymns of praise are sung in the southern heaven, and unto thee are adorations paid in the northern heaven.
The never setting stars 6 are before thy face, and they are thy thrones, even as also are those that never rest.
An offering cometh to thee by the command of Seb. The company of the gods adoreth thee, the stars of the tuat bow to the earth in adoration before thee, [all] domains pay homage to thee, and the ends of the earth offer entreaty and supplication.
When those who are among the holy ones 7 see thee they tremble at thee, and the whole world giveth praise unto thee when it meeteth thy majesty.
Thou art a glorious sahu among the sahu's , upon thee hath dignity been conferred, thy dominion is eternal, O thou beautiful Form of the company of the gods; thou gracious one who art beloved by him that 8 seeth thee.
Thou settest thy fear in all the world, and through love for thee all proclaim thy name before that of all other gods. Unto thee are offerings made by all mankind, O thou lord to whom commemorations are made, both in heaven and in earth.
Thou art the chief and prince of thy brethren, thou art the prince of the company of the gods, thou stablishest right and truth everywhere, thou placest thy son upon thy throne, thou art the object of praise of thy father Seb, and of the love of thy mother Nut.
Thou art exceeding mighty, thou overthrowest those who oppose thee, thou art mighty of hand, and thou slaughterest thine 10 enemy.
Thou settest thy fear in thy foe, thou removest his boundaries, thy heart is fixed, and thy feet are watchful.
Thou art the heir of Seb and the sovereign of all the earth;. Seb hath seen thy glorious power, and hath commanded thee to direct the 11 universe for ever and ever by thy hand.
Thou shinest in the horizon, thou sendest forth thy light into the darkness, thou makest the darkness light with thy double plume, and thou floodest the world with light like the 13 Disk at break of day.
Thy diadem pierceth heaven and becometh a brother unto the stars, O thou form of every god. Thou art gracious in command and in speech, thou art the favoured one of the great company of the gods, and thou art the greatly beloved one of the lesser company of the gods.
The glorious Isis was perfect in command and in speech, and she avenged her brother. She overshadowed him with her feathers, she made wind with her wings, and she uttered cries at the burial of her brother.
Literally, "she alighted not,"; the whole passage here justifies Plutarch's statement De Iside Osiride , 16 concerning Isis: Later in the XVIIIth, or early in the XIXth dynasty, we find Osiris called "the king of eternity, the lord of everlastingness, who traverseth millions of years in the duration of his life, the firstborn son of the womb of Nut, begotten of Seb, the prince of gods and men, the god of gods, the king of kings, the lord of lords, the prince of princes, the governor of the world, from the womb of Nut, whose existence is for everlasting, Unnefer of many forms and of many attributes, Tmu in Annu, the lord of Akert, the only one, the lord of the land on each side of the celestial Nile.
He is called "the soul that liveth again," "the being who becometh a child again," "the firstborn son of unformed matter, the lord of multitudes of aspects and forms, the lord of time and bestower of years, the lord of life for all eternity.
The text of this work, transcribed into hieroglyphics, was published, with a Latin translation, by Brugsch, under the title, Sai an Sinsin sive Aber Metempsychosis veterum Aegyptiorum , Berlin, ; and an English translation of the same work, but made from a Paris MS.
The hieratic text of this work is published with a French translation by p. The ideas and beliefs which the Egyptians held in reference to a future existence are not readily to be defined, owing to the many difficulties in translating religious texts and in harmonizing the statements made in different works of different periods.
Some confusion of details also seems to have existed in the minds of the Egyptians themselves, which cannot be cleared up until the literature of the subject has been further studied and until more texts have been published.
That the Egyptians believed in a future life of some kind is certain; and the doctrine of eternal existence is the leading feature of their religion, and is enunciated with the utmost clearness in all periods.
Whether this belief had its origin at Annu, the chief city of the worship of the sun-god, is not certain, but is very probable; for already in the pyramid texts we find the idea of everlasting life associated with the sun's existence, and Pepi I.
To this end all the religious literature of Egypt was composed. Let us take the following extracts from texts of the VIth dynasty as illustrations: Recueil Travaux , t.
The context runs "Thy Sceptre is in thy hand, and thou givest commands unto the living ones. The Mekes and Nehbet sceptres are in thy hand, and thou givest commands unto those whose abodes are secret.
In the papyrus of Ani the deceased is represented as having come to a place remote and far away, where there is neither air to breathe nor water to drink, but where he holds converse with Tmu.
In answer to his question, "How long have I to live? In the LXXXIVth Chapter, as given in the same papyrus, the infinite duration of the past and future existence of the soul, as well as its divine nature, is proclaimed by Ani in the words: When the deceased identifies himself with Shu, he makes the period of his existence coeval with that of Tmu-Ra, i.
But while we have this evidence of the Egyptian belief in eternal life, we are nowhere told that man's corruptible body will rise again; indeed, the following extracts show that the idea prevailed that the body lay in the earth while the soul or spirit lived in heaven.
There is, however, no doubt that from first to last the Egyptians firmly believed that besides the soul there was some other element of the man that would rise again.
The preservation of the corruptible body too was in some way connected with the life in the world to come, and its preservation was necessary to ensure eternal life; otherwise the prayers recited to this end would have been futile, and the time honoured custom of mummifying the dead would have had no meaning.
The never ending existence of the soul is asserted in a passage quoted above without reference to Osiris; but the frequent mention of the uniting of his bones, and of the gathering together of his members, and the doing away with all corruption from his body, seems to show that the pious Egyptian connected these things with the resurrection of his own body in some form, and he argued that what had been done for him who was proclaimed to be giver and source of life must be necessary for mortal man.
The physical body of man considered as a whole was called khat , a word which seems to be connected with the idea of something which is liable to decay.
The word is also applied to the mummified body in the tomb, as we know from the words "My body khat is buried. Already in the pyramid texts we have "Rise up, O thou Teta!
Thou hast received thy head, thou hast knitted together thy bones, thou hast collected thy members. As we have seen above, the body neither leaves the tomb nor reappears on earth; yet its preservation was necessary.
Thus the deceased addresses Tmu: I am whole, even as my father Khepera was whole, who is to me the type of that which passeth not away.
Come then, O Form, and give breath unto me, O lord of breath, O thou who art greater than thy compeers. Stablish thou me, and form thou me, O thou who art lord of the grave.
Grant thou to me to endure for ever, even as thou didst grant unto thy father Tmu to endure; and his body neither passed away nor decayed.
I have not done that which is hateful unto thee, nay, I have spoken that which thy ka loveth: Homage to thee, O my father Osiris, thy flesh suffered no decay, there were no worms in thee, thou didst not crumble away, thou didst not wither away, thou didst not become corruption and worms; and I myself am Khepera, I shall possess my flesh for ever and ever, I shall not decay, I shall not crumble away, I shall not wither away, I shall not become corruption.
But the body does not lie in the tomb inoperative, for by the prayers and ceremonies on the day of burial it is endowed with the power of changing into a sahu , or spiritual body.
Thus we have such phrases as, "I germinate like the plants," "My flesh germinateth," "I exist, I exist, I live, I live, I germinate, I germinate," "thy soul liveth, thy body germinateth by the command of Ra.
This chapter was found inscribed upon one of the linen wrappings of the mummy of Thothmes III. The body which has become a sahu has the power of associating with the soul and of holding converse with it.
In this form it can ascend into heaven and dwell with the gods, and with the sahu of the gods, and with the souls of the righteous. In the pyramid texts we have these passages: Recueil de Travaux , t.
From line of the same text it would seem that a man had more than one sahu , for the words "all thy sahu ," occur. This may, however, be only a plural of majesty.
In the late edition of the Book of the Dead published by Lepsius the deceased is said to " look upon his body and to rest upon his sahu ," and souls are said "to enter into their sahu "; and a passage extant both in this and the older Theban edition makes the deceased to receive the sahu of the god Osiris.
In close connection with the natural and spiritual bodies stood the heart, or rather that part of it which was the seat of the power of life and the fountain of good and evil thoughts.
And in addition to the natural and spiritual bodies, man also bad an abstract individuality or personality endowed with all his characteristic attributes.
This abstract personality had an absolutely independent existence. It could move freely from place to place, separating itself from, or uniting itself to,.
The funeral offerings of meat, cakes, ale, wine, unguents, etc. The ka dwelt in the man's statue just as the ka of a god inhabited the statue of the god.
In this respect the ka seems to be identical with the sekhem or image. In the remotest times the tombs had special chambers wherein the ka was worshipped and received offerings.
The priesthood numbered among its body an order of men who bore the name of "priests of the ka and who performed services in honour of the ka in the " ka chapel".
In the text of Unas the deceased is said to be "happy with his ka" in the next world, and his ka is joined unto his body in "the great dwelling";  his body.
The first scholar who seriously examined the meaning of the word was Dr. In September, , V. In March, , Mr. Renouf read a paper entitled "On the true sense of an important Egyptian word" Trans.
Maspero; and in September of the same year M. Maspero again treated the subject in Recueil de Travaux , t.
The various shades of meaning in the word have been discussed subsequently by Brugsch, Wörterbuch Suppl. The ka , as we have seen, could eat food, and it was necessary to provide food for it.
In the XIIth dynasty and in later periods the gods are entreated to grant meat and drink to the ka of the deceased; and it seems as if the Egyptians thought that the future welfare of the spiritual body depended upon the maintenance of a constant supply of sepulchral offerings.
When circumstances rendered it impossible to continue the material supply of food, the ka fed upon the offerings painted on the walls of the tomb, which were transformed into suitable nourishment by means of the prayers of the living.
When there were neither material offerings nor painted similitudes to feed upon, it seems as if the ka must have perished; but the texts are not definite on this point.
May I have my mouth that I may speak therewith like the followers of Horus, may I come forth to heaven, may I descend to earth, may I never be shut out upon the road, may there never be done unto me that which my soul abhorreth, let not my soul be imprisoned, but may I be among the venerable and favoured ones, may I plough my lands in the Field of Aaru, may I arrive at the Field of Peace, may one come out to me with vessels of ale and cakes and bread of the lords of eternity, may I receive meat from the altars of the great, I the ka of the prophet Amsu.
To that part of man which beyond all doubt was believed to enjoy an eternal existence in heaven in a state of glory, the Egyptians gave the name ba , a word which means something like "sublime," "noble," and which has always hitherto been translated by "soul.
It revisited the body in the tomb and re-animated it, and conversed with it; it could take upon itself any shape that it pleased; and it had the power of passing into heaven and of dwelling with the perfected souls there.
As the ba was closely associated with the ka , it partook of the funeral offerings, and in one aspect of its existence at least it was liable to decay if not properly and sufficiently nourished.
In the pyramid texts the permanent dwelling place of the ba or soul is heaven with the gods, whose life it shares. In connection with the ka and ba must be mentioned the khaibit or shadow of the man, which the Egyptians regarded as a part of the human economy.
It was supposed to have an entirely independent existence and to be able to separate itself from the body; it was free to move wherever it pleased, and, like the ka and ba , it partook of the funeral offerings in the tomb, which it visited at will.
The mention of the shade, whether of a god or man, in the pyramid texts is unfrequent, and it is not easy to ascertain what views were held concerning it; but from the passage in the text of Unas, where it is mentioned together with the souls and spirits and bones of the gods, it is evident that already at that early date its position in relation to man was well defined.
From the collection of illustrations which Dr. Birch appended to his paper On the Shade or Shadow of the Dead , it is quite clear that in later times at least the shadow was always associated with the soul and was believed to be always near it; and this view is.
Another important and apparently eternal part of man was the khu , which, judging from the meaning of the word, may be defined as a "shining" or translucent, intangible casing or covering of the body, which is frequently depicted in the form of a mummy.
For want of a better word khu has often been translated "shining one," "glorious," "intelligence," and the like, but in certain cases it may be tolerably well rendered by "spirit.
Thus it is said, "Unas standeth with the khu's ," and one of the gods is asked to "give him his sceptre among the khu's ; " when the souls of the gods enter into Unas, their khu's are with and round about him.
And again, when the god Khent-mennut-f has transported the king to heaven, the god Seb, who rejoices to meet him, is said to give him both hands and welcome him as a brother and to nurse him and to place him among the imperishable khu's.
Yet another part of a man was supposed to exist in heaven, to which the Egyptians gave the name sekhem.
The word has been rendered by "power," "form," and the like, but it is very difficult to find any expression which will represent the Egyptian conception of the sekhem.
It is mentioned in connection with the soul and khu , as will be seen from the following passages from the pyramid texts. A name of Ra was sekhem ur , the "Great Sekhem," and Unas is identified with him and called: Finally, the name, ren , of a man was believed to exist in heaven, and.
Thus, as we have seen, the whole man consisted of a natural body, a spiritual body, a heart, a double, a soul, a shadow, an intangible ethereal casing or spirit, a form, and a name.
All these were, however, bound together inseparably, and the welfare of any single one of them concerned the welfare of all.
For the well-being of the spiritual parts it was necessary to preserve from decay the natural body; and. The texts are silent as to the time when the immortal part began its beatified existence; but it is probable that the Osiris of a man only attained to the full enjoyment of spiritual happiness after the funeral ceremonies had been duly per formed and the ritual recited.
Comparatively few particulars are known of the manner of life of the soul in heaven, and though a number of interesting facts may be gleaned from the texts of all periods, it is very difficult to harmonize them.
This result is due partly to the different views held by different schools of thought in ancient Egypt, and partly to the fact that on some points the Egyptians them selves seem to have had no decided opinions.
We depend upon the pyramid texts for our knowledge of their earliest conceptions of a future life.
The life of the Osiris of a man in heaven is at once material and spiritual and it seems as if the Egyptians never succeeded in breaking away from their very ancient habit of confusing the things of the body with the things of the soul.
They believed in an incorporeal and immortal part of man, the constituent elements of which flew to heaven after death and embalmment; yet the theologians of the VIth dynasty had decided that there was some part of the deceased which could only mount to heaven by means of a ladder.
In the pyramid of Teta it is said, "When Teta hath purified himself on the borders of this earth where Ra hath purified himself, he prayeth and setteth up the ladder, and those who dwell in the great place press Teta forward with their hands.
The Osiris consisted of all the spiritual parts of a man gathered together in a form which resembled him exactly. Whatever honour was paid to the mummified body was received by its Osiris, the offerings made to it were accepted by its Osiris, and the amulets laid upon it were made use of by its Osiris for its own protection.
The sahu , the ka , the ba , the khu , the khaibit , the sekhem , and the ren were in primeval times separate and independent parts of man's immortal nature; but in the pyramid texts they are welded together, and the dead king Pepi is addressed as "Osiris Pepi.
In the pyramid of Unas it is said, "Ra setteth upright the ladder for Osiris, and Horus raiseth up the ladder for his father Osiris, when Osiris goeth to [find] his soul; one standeth on the one side, and the other standeth on the other, and Unas is betwixt them.
Unas standeth up and is Horus, he sitteth down and is Set. This Pepi is thy son, this Pepi is Horus, thou hast given birth unto this Pepi even as thou hast given birth unto the god who is the lord of the Ladder.
Thou hast given him the Ladder of God, and thou hast given him the Ladder of Set, whereon this Pepi hath gone forth into heaven.
Every khu and every god stretcheth out his hand unto this Pepi when he cometh forth into heaven by the Ladder of God. Pepi hath gathered together his bones, he hath collected his flesh, and Pepi hath gone straightway into heaven by means of the two fingers of the god who is the Lord of the Ladder.
When the Osiris of a man has entered into heaven as a living soul, he is regarded as one of those who "have eaten the eye of Horus he walks among.
Moreover, his body as a whole is identified with the God of Heaven. For example it is said concerning Unas: Further, this identification of the deceased with the God of Heaven places him in the position of supreme ruler.
For example, we have the prayer that Unas "may rule the nine gods and complete the company of the nine gods," and Pepi I.
Again, the deceased is changed into Horus, the son of Osiris and Isis. It is said of Pepi I. When Pepi standeth upon the north of heaven with Ra, he becometh lord of the universe like unto the king of the gods.
The place of the deceased in heaven is by the side of God in the most holy place, and he becomes God and an angel of God; he himself is triumphant,.
A somewhat different view of the signification of maakheru is given by Virey Tombeau de Rekhmara, Paris, , p. The offerings which were painted on the walls of the tomb were actually enjoyed by the deceased in his new state of being.
The Egyptians called them " per kheru ," that is to say, " the things which the word or the demand made to appear ," or " per hru kheru ," that is to say, " the things which presented themselves at the word " or " at the demand " of the deceased.
The deceased was then called " maa kheru ," that is to say, " he who realizes his word ," or " he who realizes while he speaks ," or " whose voice or demand realizes ," or " whose voice or demand makes true, or makes to be really and actually " that which only appears in painting on the walls of the tomb.
It is possible that maa-kheru may mean simply "blessed. He goes round about heaven even as they do, and he partakes of their food of figs and wine.
Those who would be hostile to the deceased become thereby foes of the god Tmu, and all injuries inflicted on him are inflicted on that god; he dwells without fear under the protection of the gods, from whose loins he has come forth.
His calamities are brought to an end, for Unas hath been purified with the Eye of Horus; the calamities of Unas have been done away by Isis and Nephthys.
Unas is in heaven, Unas is in heaven, in the form of air, in the form of air; he perisheth not, neither doth anything which is in him perish.
Those who row Ra up into the heavens row him also, and those who row Ra beneath the horizon row him also.
Thy soul is with thee in thy body, thy form of strength is behind thee, thy crown is upon thy head, thy head-dress is upon thy shoulders, thy face is before thee, and those who sing songs of joy are upon both sides of thee; those who follow in the train of God are behind thee, and the divine forms who make God to come are upon each side of thee.
God cometh, and Pepi hath come upon the throne of Osiris. The shining one who dwelleth in Netat, the divine form that dwelleth in Teni, hath come. The main ceremony, the opening of the mouth ceremony , is best depicted within Pharaoh Sety I's tomb.
All along the walls and statuary inside the tomb are reliefs and paintings of priests performing the sacred rituals and, below the painted images, the text of the liturgy for opening of the mouth can be found.
This spiritual body was then able to interact with the many entities extant in the afterlife. A well-known example was found in a tomb from the Middle Kingdom in which a man leaves a letter to his late wife who, it can be supposed, is haunting him:.
What wicked thing have I done to thee that I should have come to this evil pass? What have I done to thee? But what thou hast done to me is to have laid hands on me although I had nothing wicked to thee.
From the time I lived with thee as thy husband down to today, what have I done to thee that I need hide? When thou didst sicken of the illness which thou hadst, I caused a master-physician to be fetched…I spent eight months without eating and drinking like a man.
I wept exceedingly together with my household in front of my street-quarter. I gave linen clothes to wrap thee and left no benefit undone that had to be performed for thee.
And now, behold, I have spent three years alone without entering into a house, though it is not right that one like me should have to do it.
This have I done for thy sake. But, behold, thou dost not know good from bad. An important part of the Egyptian soul was thought to be the jb , or heart.
The heart  was believed to be formed from one drop of blood from the heart of the child's mother, taken at conception.
Unlike in English, when ancient Egyptians referenced the jb they generally meant the physical heart as opposed to a metaphorical heart. However, ancient Egyptians usually made no distinction between the mind and the heart with regard to emotion or thought.
The two were synonymous. In the Egyptian religion, the heart was the key to the afterlife. It was essential to surviving death in the nether world, where it gave evidence for, or against, its possessor.
According to the Text of the Book of Breathings ,. It was thought that the heart was examined by Anubis and the deities during the Weighing of the Heart ceremony.
If the heart weighed more than the feather of Maat , it was immediately consumed by the monster Ammit , and the soul became eternally restless.
The Egyptians believed that Khnum created the bodies of children on a potter's wheel and inserted them into their mothers' bodies. This resembles the concept of spirit in other religions.
Because of this, Egyptians surmised that a shadow contains something of the person it represents. Through this association, statues of people and deities were sometimes referred to as shadows.
The shadow was also representative to Egyptians of a figure of death, or servant of Anubis , and was depicted graphically as a small human figure painted completely black.
Little is known about the Egyptian interpretation of this portion of the soul. As a part of the soul, a person's rn r n 'name' was given to them at birth and the Egyptians believed that it would live for as long as that name was spoken, which explains why efforts were made to protect it and the practice of placing it in numerous writings.
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